Monday, February 12, 2007

the concept of Polictical Islam

The Study of Political Islam
By Jamie GlazovFrontPageMagazine.com February 5, 2007
Frontpage Interview’s guest today is Bill Warner, the director of the Center for the Study of Political Islam (CSPI). CSPI’s goal is to teach the doctrine of political Islam through its books and it has produced a series on its focus. Mr. Warner did not write the CSPI series, but he acts as the agent for a group of scholars who are the authors.
FP: Bill Warner, welcome to Frontpage Interview.
Warner: Thank you Jamie for this opportunity.

FP: Tell us a bit about the Center for the Study of Political Islam.

Warner: The Center for the Study of Political Islam is a group of scholars who are devoted to the scientific study of the foundational texts of Islam—Koran, Sira (life of Mohammed) and Hadith (traditions of Mohammed). There are two areas to study in Islam, its doctrine and history, or as CSPI sees it—the theory and its results. We study the history to see the practical or experimental results of the doctrine.

CSPI seems to be the first group to use statistics to study the doctrine. Previous scientific studies of the Koran are primarily devoted to Arabic language studies.

Our first principle is that Koran, Sira and Hadith must be taken as a whole. We call them the Islamic Trilogy to emphasize the unity of the texts.

Our major intellectual breakthrough is to see that dualism is the foundation and key to understanding Islam. Everything about Islam comes in twos starting with its foundational declaration: (1) there is no god but Allah and (2) Mohammed is His prophet. Therefore, Islam is Allah (Koran) and the Sunna (words and deeds of Mohammed found in the Sira and Hadith).

Endless ink has been wasted on trying to answer the question of what is Islam? Is Islam the religion of peace? Or is the true Islam a radical ideology? Is a moderate Muslim the real Muslim?

This reminds a scientist of the old arguments about light. Is light a particle or is light a wave? The arguments went back and forth. Quantum mechanics gave us the answer. Light is dualistic; it is both a particle and a wave. It depends upon the circumstances as to which quality manifests. Islam functions in the same manner.

Our first clue about the dualism is in the Koran, which is actually two books, the Koran of Mecca (early) and the Koran of Medina (later). The insight into the logic of the Koran comes from the large numbers of contradictions in it. On the surface, Islam resolves these contradictions by resorting to “abrogation”. This means that the verse written later supersedes the earlier verse. But in fact, since the Koran is considered by Muslims to be the perfect word of Allah, both verses are sacred and true. The later verse is “better,” but the earlier verse cannot be wrong since Allah is perfect. This is the foundation of dualism. Both verses are “right.” Both sides of the contradiction are true in dualistic logic. The circumstances govern which verse is used.

For example:

(Koran of Mecca) 73:10: Listen to what they [unbelievers] say with patience, and leave them with dignity.

From tolerance we move to the ultimate intolerance, not even the Lord of the Universe can stand the unbelievers:


(Koran of Medina) 8:12: Then your Lord spoke to His angels and said, “I will be with you. Give strength to the believers. I will send terror into the unbelievers’ hearts, cut off their heads and even the tips of their fingers!”

All of Western logic is based upon the law of contradiction—if two things contradict, then at least one of them is false. But Islamic logic is dualistic; two things can contradict each other and both are true.

No dualistic system may be measured by one answer. This is the reason that the arguments about what constitutes the “real” Islam go on and on and are never resolved. A single right answer does not exist.

Dualistic systems can only be measured by statistics. It is futile to argue one side of the dualism is true. As an analogy, quantum mechanics always gives a statistical answer to all questions.

For an example of using statistics, look at the question: what is the real jihad, the jihad of inner, spiritual struggle or the jihad of war? Let’s turn to Bukhari (the Hadith) for the answer, as he repeatedly speaks of jihad. In Bukhari 97% of the jihad references are about war and 3% are about the inner struggle. So the statistical answer is that jihad is 97% war and 3% inner struggle. Is jihad war? Yes—97%. Is jihad inner struggle? Yes—3%. So if you are writing an article, you can make a case for either. But in truth, almost every argument about Islam can be answered by: all of the above. Both sides of the duality are right.

FP: Why, in your view, is there so much ignorance about the history and doctrine of political Islam in the West?

Warner: First, let’s see how ignorant we are about the history of political Islam. How many Christians can tell you how Turkey or Egypt became Islamic? What happened to the Seven Churches of Asia mentioned in Paul’s letters? Find a Jew who can tell you the Jewish history of dhimmitude (second class citizens who serve Islam). What European knows that white women were the highest priced slaves in Mecca? Everyone knows how many Jews Hitler killed, but find an unbeliever who can tell you how many died in jihad over the last 1400 years.

We are just as ignorant about the doctrine of Islam. An FBI agent gets two hours of training on Islam and most of that is how not to offend the imam. We are fighting in Iraq. Who utilizes the political, military doctrine of Islam to plan strategy? Who can find a single rabbi or minister who has read the Koran, Sira and Hadith? What governor, senator, congressmen or military leader displays a knowledge of the political doctrine of Islam? Try to find a course available in a college about Islamic political doctrine and ethics. Graduates are schooled in Islamic art, architecture, poetry, Sufism, and a glorious history that ignores the suffering of the innocent unbelievers. Graduates read comments about the Koran and Hadith, but do not read the actual doctrine.

FP: So why this ignorance?

Warner: Let’s start at the beginning. When Islam burst out of Arabia into a decaying Byzantine world, the unbelievers recorded it as an Arabic invasion. Similarly, the invasion of Eastern Europe was by Turks; the invasion of Spain was by Moors. Our scholars were incapable of even naming the invaders.

Mohammed killed every single intellectual or artist who opposed him. It was fear that drove the vast majority of the media not to reprint the Mohammed cartoons, not some imagined sensitivity. Fear is a fabulous basis for ignorance, but that is not enough to explain it all. What accounts for the almost psychotic aversion to knowledge about Islam? Beyond fear is the realization that political Islam is profoundly foreign to us.

Let’s examine the ethical basis of our civilization. All of our politics and ethics are based upon a unitary ethic that is best formulated in the Golden Rule:

Treat others as you would be treated.

The basis of this rule is the recognition that at one level, we are all the same. We are not all equal. Any game of sports will show that we do not have equal abilities. But everyone wants to be treated as a human being. In particular, we all want to be equal under the law and be treated as social equals. On the basis of the Golden Rule—the equality of human beings—we have created democracy, ended slavery and treat women and men as political equals. So the Golden Rule is a unitary ethic. All people are to be treated the same. All religions have some version of the Golden Rule except Islam.

FP: So how is Islam different in this context?

Warner: The term “human being” has no meaning inside of Islam. There is no such thing as humanity, only the duality of the believer and unbeliever. Look at the ethical statements found in the Hadith. A Muslim should not lie, cheat, kill or steal from other Muslims. But a Muslim may lie, deceive or kill an unbeliever if it advances Islam.

There is no such thing as a universal statement of ethics in Islam. Muslims are to be treated one way and unbelievers another way. The closest Islam comes to a universal statement of ethics is that the entire world must submit to Islam. After Mohammed became a prophet, he never treated an unbeliever the same as a Muslim. Islam denies the truth of the Golden Rule.

By the way, this dualistic ethic is the basis for jihad. The ethical system sets up the unbeliever as less than human and therefore, it is easy to kill, harm or deceive the unbeliever.

Now mind you, unbelievers have frequently failed at applying the Golden Rule, but we can be judged and condemned on its basis. We do fall short, but it is our ideal.

There have been other dualistic cultures. The KKK comes to mind. But the KKK is a simplistic dualism. The KKK member hates all black people at all times; there is only one choice. This is very straightforward and easy to see.

The dualism of Islam is more deceitful and offers two choices on how to treat the unbeliever. The unbeliever can be treated nicely, in the same way a farmer treats his cattle well. So Islam can be “nice”, but in no case is the unbeliever a “brother” or a friend. In fact, there are some 14 verses of the Koran that are emphatic—a Muslim is never a friend to the unbeliever. A Muslim may be “friendly,” but he is never an actual friend. And the degree to which a Muslim is actually a true friend is the degree to which he is not a Muslim, but a hypocrite.

FP: You mentioned earlier how logic is another point of profound difference. Can you touch on that?

Warner: To reiterate, all of science is based upon the law of contradiction. If two things contradict each other, then at least one of them has to be false. But inside of Islamic logic, two contradictory statements can both be true. Islam uses dualistic logic and we use unitary scientific logic.

Since Islam has a dualistic logic and dualistic ethics, it is completely foreign to us. Muslims think differently from us and feel differently from us. So our aversion is based upon fear and a rejection of Islamic ethics and logic. This aversion causes us to avoid learning about Islam so we are ignorant and stay ignorant.

Another part of the aversion is the realization that there is no compromise with dualistic ethics. There is no halfway place between unitary ethics and dualistic ethics. If you are in a business deal with someone who is a liar and a cheat, there is no way to avoid getting cheated. No matter how nice you are to a con man, he will take advantage of you. There is no compromise with dualistic ethics. In short, Islamic politics, ethics and logic cannot be part of our civilization. Islam does not assimilate, it dominates. There is never any “getting along” with Islam. Its demands never cease and the demands must be met on Islam’s terms: submission.

The last reason for our aversion to the history of political Islam is our shame. Islam put over a million Europeans into slavery. Since Muslims can’t be enslaved, it was a white Christian who was the Turkish sultan’s sex slave. These are things that we do not want to face.

Jews don’t want to acknowledge the history of political Islam, because they were dhimmis, second class citizens or semi-slaves, just like the Christians. Jews like to recall how they were advisors and physicians to powerful Muslims, but no matter what the Jew did or what position he held, he was still a dhimmi. There is no compromise between being equal and being a dhimmi

Why should a Hindu want to recall the shame of slavery and the destruction of their temples and cities? After Hindu craftsmen built the Taj Mahal, the Muslim ruler had their right hands cut off so that they could not build anything as beautiful for anyone else. The practice of suttee, the widow throwing herself on the husband’s funeral pyre, came about as a response to the rape and brutality of the Islamic jihad as it sweep over ancient Hindustan.

Blacks don’t want to face the fact that it was a Muslim who rounded up their ancestors in Africa to wholesale to the white slave trader. The Arab is the true master of the African. Blacks can’t accept the common bond they share with whites: that both Europeans and Africans were slaves under Islam. Blacks like to imagine Islam is their counterweight to white power, not that Islam has ruled them for 1400 years.

Dualistic logic. Dualistic ethics. Fear. Shame. There is no compromise. These are the reasons we don’t want to know about Islam’s political history, doctrine or ethics.

FP So is there such a thing as non-political Islam?

Warner: Non-political Islam is religious Islam. Religious Islam is what a Muslim does to avoid Hell and go to Paradise. These are the Five Pillars—prayer, charity to Muslims, pilgrimage to Mecca, fasting and declaring Mohammed to be the final prophet.

But the Trilogy is clear about the doctrine. At least 75% of the Sira (life of Mohammed) is about jihad. About 67% of the Koran written in Mecca is about the unbelievers, or politics. Of the Koran of Medina, 51% is devoted to the unbelievers. About 20% of Bukhari’s Hadith is about jihad and politics. Religion is the smallest part of Islamic foundational texts.

Political Islam’s most famous duality is the division of the world into believers, dar al Islam, and unbelievers, dar al harb. The largest part of the Trilogy relates to treatment of the unbelievers, kafirs. Even Hell is political. There are 146 references to Hell in the Koran. Only 6% of those in Hell are there for moral failings—murder, theft, etc. The other 94% of the reasons for being in Hell are for the intellectual sin of disagreeing with Mohammed, a political crime. Hence, Islamic Hell is a political prison for those who speak against Islam.

Mohammed preached his religion for 13 years and garnered only 150 followers. But when he turned to politics and war, in 10 years time he became the first ruler of Arabia by averaging an event of violence every 7 weeks for 9 years. His success did not come as a religious leader, but as a political leader.

In short, political Islam defines how the unbelievers are to be dealt with and treated.

FP: Can you touch briefly on the history of political Islam?

Warner: The history of political Islam starts with Mohammed’s immigration to Medina. From that point on, Islam’s appeal to the world has always had the dualistic option of joining a glorious religion or being the subject of political pressure and violence. After the immigration to Medina, Islam became violent when persuasion failed. Jihad entered the world.

After Mohammed’s death, Abu Bakr, the second caliph, settled the theological arguments of those who wished to leave Islam with the political action of death by the sword. The jihad of Umar (the second caliph, a pope-king) exploded into the world of the unbelievers. Jihad destroyed a Christian Middle East and a Christian North Africa. Soon it was the fate of the Persian Zoroastrian and the Hindu to be the victims of jihad. The history of political Islam is the destruction of Christianity in the Middle East, Egypt, Turkey and North Africa. Half of Christianity was lost. Before Islam, North Africa was the southern part of Europe (part of the Roman Empire). Around 60 million Christians were slaughtered during the jihadic conquest.

Half of the glorious Hindu civilization was annihilated and 80 million Hindus killed.

The first Western Buddhists were the Greeks descended from Alexander the Great’s army in what is now Afghanistan. Jihad destroyed all of Buddhism along the silk route. About 10 million Buddhists died. The conquest of Buddhism is the practical result of pacifism.

Zoarasterianism was eliminated from Persia.

The Jews became permanent dhimmis throughout Islam.

In Africa over 120 million Christians and animists have died over the last 1400 years of jihad.

Approximately 270 million nonbelievers died over the last 1400 years for the glory of political Islam. These are the Tears of Jihad which are not taught in any school.

FP: How have our intellectuals responded to Islam?

Warner: The basis of all the unbeliever’s thought has collapsed in the face of Islamic political thought, ethics and logic. We have already mentioned how our first intellectuals could not even name the invaders as Muslims. We have no method of analysis of Islam. We can’t agree on what Islam is and have no knowledge about our suffering as the victims of a 1400-year jihad.

Look at how Christians, Jews, blacks, intellectuals and artists have dealt with Islamic doctrine and history. In every case their primary ideas fail.

Christians believe that “love conquers all.” Well, love does not conquer Islam. Christians have a difficult time seeing Islam as a political doctrine, not a religion. The sectarian nature of Christian thought means that the average non-Orthodox Christian has no knowledge or sympathy about the Orthodox Christian’s suffering.

Jews have a theology that posits a unique relationship between Jews and the creator-god of the universe. But Islam sees the Jews as apes who corrupted the Old Testament. Jews see no connection between Islam’s political doctrine and Israel.

Black intellectuals have based their ideas on the slave/victim status and how wrong it was for white Christians to make them slaves. Islam has never acknowledged any of the pain and suffering it has caused in Africa with its 1400-year-old slave trade. But blacks make no attempt to get an apology from Muslims and are silent in the presence of Islam. Why? Is it because Arabs are their masters?

Multiculturalism is bankrupt against Islam’s demand for every civilization to submit. The culture of tolerance collapses in the face of the sacred intolerance of dualistic ethics. Intellectuals respond by ignoring the failure.

Our intellectuals and artists have been abused for 1400 years. Indeed, the psychology of our intellectuals is exactly like the psychology of the abused wife, the sexually abused child or rape victim. Look at the parallels between the response of abuse victims and our intellectuals. See how violence has caused denial.

The victims deny that the abuse took place: Our media never reports the majority of jihad around the world. Our intellectuals don’t talk about how all of the violence is connected to a political doctrine.

The abuser uses fear to control the victim: What was the reason that newspapers would not publish the Mohammed cartoon? Salman Rushdie still has a death sentence for his novel. What “cutting edge” artist creates any artistic statement about Islam? Fear rules our intellectuals and artists.

The victims find ways to blame themselves: We are to blame for the attacks on September 11, 2001. If we try harder Muslims will act nicer. We have to accommodate their needs.

The victim is humiliated: White people will not talk about how their ancestors were enslaved by Islam. No one wants to claim the victims of jihad. Why won’t we claim the suffering of our ancestors? Why don’t we cry about the loss of cultures and peoples? We are too ashamed to care.

The victim feels helpless: “What are we going to do?” “We can’t kill 1.3 billion people.” No one has any understanding or optimism. No one has an idea of what to try. The only plan is to “be nicer.”

The victim turns the anger inward: What is the most divisive issue in today’s politics? Iraq. And what is Iraq really about? Political Islam. The Web has a video about how the CIA and Bush planned and executed September 11. Cultural self-loathing is the watchword of our intellectuals and artists.

We hate ourselves because we are mentally molested and abused. Our intellectuals and artists have responded to the abuse of jihad just as a sexually abused child or a rape victim would respond. We are quite intellectually ill and are failing at our job of clear thinking. We can’t look at our denial.

FP: So summarize for us why it is so crucial for us to learn the doctrine of political Islam.

Warner: Political Islam has annihilated every culture it has invaded or immigrated to. The total time for annihilation takes centuries, but once Islam is ascendant it never fails. The host culture disappears and becomes extinct.

We must learn the doctrine of political Islam to survive. The doctrine is very clear that all forms of force and persuasion may and must be used to conquer us. Islam is a self-declared enemy of all unbelievers. The brilliant Chinese philosopher of war, Sun Tsu, had the dictum—know the enemy. We must know the doctrine of our enemy or be annihilated.

Or put another way: if we do not learn the doctrine of political Islam, our civilization will be annihilated just as Egypt’s Coptic civilization was annihilated.

Since unbelievers must know the doctrine of political Islam to survive, CSPI has written all of its books in simple English. Our books are scholarly, but easy to read. As an example, anyone who can read a newspaper can pick up A Simple Koran and read and understand it. It is not “dumbed down” and contains every single word of the original.

Not only is the language simple, but logic has been used to sort and categorize. Context and chronology have been restored. The result is a Koran that is an epic story ending in triumph over all enemies of Allah. All of our books and philosophy may be found at our center's website.

Islam declares that we are the enemies of Allah. If we do not learn the political doctrine of Islam we will end up just like the first victims of Islam—the tolerant, polytheist Arabs of Saudi Arabia who became the Wahabbis (a very strict branch of Islam) of today, the most intolerant culture on the face of the earth.

FP: Bill Warner, thank you for joining us today.

Warner: Jamie, thank you for your kindness and efforts.
---------------------------------------------------------------------
This video is new and different. It is moving and heartwarming. Pass it on!
The singer needs a recording contract when he comes home!
Close attention to the words please...
THERE ARE SOME THINGS WORTH FIGHTING FOR!

IfIDieBeforeYouWake - Powered by FlashPoint
--------------------------------------------------------------------
http://libcom.org/library/allied-multinationals-supply-nazi-germany-world-war-2
Just came across this, found it of interest.The thought comes to "Follow the Money" in todays conflict. If you do, you will find the same set of players as in the link above, adjusted for time, name changes, and mergers. The trail is now 60 yrs long and full of deception however, it is there."People are like slugs, they leave a trail everywhere they go"Grant...
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Muslims
How and why we Shiite Muslims mourn for HusaynSan Francisco Chronicle - San Francisco,CA,USAEvery year, I am asked as an American Shiite Muslim the same question by non-Muslims and Sunni Muslims: Why do you beat your chest to mourn for the death of ...
3 million Muslims join peace prayer in BangladeshYork Dispatch - York,PA,USAThis shows how Bangladeshi Muslims love peace and are opposed to those who propagate militancy," said Abul Kalam, an Islamic scholar. ...See all stories on this topic
Malegaon blasts aimed at spurring Muslims against HindusDaily News & Analysis - Mumbai,IndiaMUMBAI: The four blasts in Malegaon town in Nasik district were carried out in places of religious significance for Muslims since the perpetrators hoped to ...
“Hypocrites in the West will tell you that Shia Muslims want to ...Aljazeera.com - London,UKHypocrites in the West will tell you that Shia Muslims want to dominate Islam but that is false. Last summer Hezbollah brought an unexpected relief to the ...
Reporting on Muslims while JewishLos Angeles Times - CA,USAI often hear that question when people learn I've spent four years researching and writing a book about American Muslims. The answer is yes, and rather than ...
Cameron returns to Birmingham to address MuslimsGuardian Unlimited - UKThe Tory leader's visit follows the outspoken comments last week of Mohammad Naseem, Birmingham Central Mosque's chairman, who likened the plight of Muslims ...See all stories on this topic
Muslims need to use constitutional safeguards: Abu Saleh ShariffIndian Muslims - San Diego,CA,USABaltimore, Maryland, Feb 5 (IndianMuslims.info) Leading Human Development expert, Dr. Abu Saleh Shariff urged Muslims of India to use constitutional ...
Clash of Civilizations on Our Streets: Muslim Soldiers Called ...Jawa Report - Arlen,TX,USAAn article in the British press today shows Muslims accusing fellow Muslims who serve in the military of being "apostates" and "traitors"---and often times ...See all stories on this topic
Hit sitcom shows Muslims can take a jokeDetroit Free Press - Detroit,MI,USAZarqa Nawaz had a simple plan for trying to bridge the cultural gap between Muslims and non-Muslims: Generate laughs first. ...
Muslims snub calls to rally at Temple MountYnetnews - IsraelLeaders from the northern and southern factions of the Islamic Movement called on Muslims to come to the site on Monday following work being done to ...See all stories on this topic
--------------------------------------------------------------
According to an article in World Net Daily, “With heads bowed reverently, Democrats were led in prayer by a Muslim imam who essentially asked Allah to assist in converting the party members to Islam, according to a scholar and author… Robert Spencer, director of Jihad Watch and author of "The Truth about Muhammad…" Spencer “took note of the prayer given at the Democratic National Committee winter meeting by Husham Al-Husainy, imam of the Karbalaa Islamic Education Center, a Shiite mosque in Dearborn, Mich.” The imam also asked Allah to “stop the oppression and occupation” in a veiled reference to Israel.
Do you support a U.S. Muslim Imam asking Allah to assist in converting U.S. leaders to Islam and ousting Israel from its rightful place in the Middle East?
Vote your opinion now
----------------------------------------------------------

Bombs kill at least 80 people in Iraq
Iran rejects U.S. accusations on Iraq
SKorea: NKorea nuke talks to be extended
Gates pushes for assault against Taliban
Hamas government to step down
Producer prices increase in January
Jerusalem mayor orders new walkway plans
Portugal fails to overturn abortion law
Zimbabwe ruling party hands round hat for Mugabe bash
US vows not to abandon Afghanistan
Australian PM faces storm over criticism of US candidate
-->
Bombs kill at least 80 people in IraqMon, 12 Feb 2007 04:21 am PST AP - Thunderous explosions and dense black smoke swirled through the center of Baghdad Monday when at least two car bombs _ one parked in an underground garage _ tore through a crowded marketplace, setting off dozens of secondary explosions and killing at least 71 people, police said. Another bombing nearby killed at least nine. Full Story
Top
Iran rejects U.S. accusations on IraqMon, 12 Feb 2007 03:23 am PST AP - Iran on Monday rejected U.S. accusations that the highest levels of Iranian leadership have armed Shiite militants in Iraq with armor-piercing roadside bombs, a day after U.S. military officials in Baghdad said they had traced the weapons to Tehran. Full Story
Top
SKorea: NKorea nuke talks to be extendedMon, 12 Feb 2007 04:20 am PST AP - Talks on North Korea's nuclear program were likely to be extended a day in a possible sign of narrowing differences, a South Korean official said Monday, as envoys lay responsibility for resolving the long-running standoff solely on Pyongyang. Full Story
Top
Gates pushes for assault against TalibanMon, 12 Feb 2007 04:41 am PST AP - Pentagon Chief Robert Gates, in his push for a coordinated assault against the Taliban in Afghanistan this spring, is enlisting Pakistan's help and vowing better military coordination along the troubled border between the two countries. Full Story
Top
Hamas government to step downMon, 12 Feb 2007 04:03 am PSTAP - Senior Palestinian officials said Monday they will start forming a new, national unity government in coming days, but acknowledged that previous dealbreakers, such as control over the security forces and the fate of Hamas' militia, have still not been resolved. Full Story
Top
Producer prices increase in JanuaryMon, 12 Feb 2007 04:43 am PST AFP - Producer prices, or the cost of goods at the factory gate, rose by 0.3 percent in January from level the previous month, the biggest increase for six months, official data has shown. Full Story
Top
Jerusalem mayor orders new walkway plansSun, 11 Feb 2007 10:24 pm PST AP - The Jerusalem municipality will submit new plans for a walkway leading to a disputed holy compound, a City Hall spokesman said Monday, but work was scheduled to continue at the site. Full Story
Top
Portugal fails to overturn abortion lawMon, 12 Feb 2007 03:41 am PST AP - Portugal's prime minister said he will enact more liberal abortion laws in the conservative Roman Catholic country even though his proposal to relax restrictions failed to win complete endorsement in a referendum. Full Story
Top
Zimbabwe ruling party hands round hat for Mugabe bashMon, 12 Feb 2007 03:57 am PST AFP - Zimbabweans, struggling to make ends meet amid hyper-inflation, are being asked to dig into their pockets for a party this month to mark President Robert Mugabe's 83rd birthday, an official said. Full Story
Top
US vows not to abandon AfghanistanMon, 12 Feb 2007 04:30 am PST AFP - US Defence Secretary Robert Gates pledged not to repeat the "mistake" of neglecting Afghanistan and allowing Taliban and Al-Qaeda extremists to take over. Full Story
Top
Australian PM faces storm over criticism of US candidateMon, 12 Feb 2007 12:36 am PST AFP - Australian Prime Minister John Howard has found himself at the centre of a political storm after criticising US presidential hopeful Barack Obama over his plans to pull troops from Iraq. Full Story
----------------------------------------------------

Today's Most Popular News:
Engineer: GPS shoes make people findable
Muslim women don't have to wear veils: Queen Rania
Albuquerque tops fittest city list
Anti-immigrant sentiments fuel Ku Klux Klan resurgence
Shanghai restores historic synagogue
Putin blasts U.S. for its use of force
Elie Wiesel accosted at S.F. hotel
Edison's light bulb could be endangered
Zsa Zsa's husband: I might be baby's dad
Heavy snow continues to bury N.Y. county
Obama to announce 2008 plans in Illinois
Gates: Bombs tie Iran to Iraq extremists
Is this year to burst CEO pay balloon?
US to study Agent Orange depot clean-up
Mom allegedly leaves kids in car to tan
Manure: You may be walking on it soon
Safety officials eye child seat reforms
Three donors shape future of museum
Modern art sales fetch European record
Alleged fake cop had 'police station'
-->
Engineer: GPS shoes make people findableFri, 09 Feb 2007 09:45 am PST AP - Isaac Daniel calls the tiny Global Positioning System chip he's embedded into a line of sneakers "peace of mind." He wishes his 8-year-old son had been wearing them when he got a call from his school in 2002 saying the boy was missing. The worried father hopped a flight to Atlanta from New York where he had been on business to find the incident had been a miscommunication and his son was safe. Full Story
Top
Muslim women don't have to wear veils: Queen RaniaFri, 09 Feb 2007 03:41 am PST AFP - Islam does not require women to wear veils, Queen Rania al-Abdullah of Jordan has said in an interview, calling on Muslim moderates to "make their voices be heard." Full Story
Top
Albuquerque tops fittest city listThu, 08 Feb 2007 05:09 pm PST AP - Albuquerque's mayor says the city has a lot of options to keep people fit _ everything from gyms to hiking and biking. Full Story
Top
Anti-immigrant sentiments fuel Ku Klux Klan resurgenceFri, 09 Feb 2007 12:00 am PST The Christian Science Monitor - The Ku Klux Klan appears to be on the rise again after years of irrelevance and splintered obscurity. Full Story
Top
Shanghai restores historic synagogueFri, 09 Feb 2007 01:58 am PST AP - Shanghai has started restoration work on one of its two remaining synagogues as part of China's effort to revive Jewish heritage in a city that provided refuge to tens of thousands of Jews during World War II. Full Story
Top
Putin blasts U.S. for its use of forceSat, 10 Feb 2007 04:32 am PST AP - Russian President Vladimir Putin blasted the United States Saturday for the "almost uncontained" use of force in the world, and for encouraging other countries to acquire nuclear weapons. Full Story
Top
Elie Wiesel accosted at S.F. hotelSat, 10 Feb 2007 03:18 am PST AP - A man who approached Nobel Peace laureate and Holocaust scholar Eli Wiesel seeking an interview at a San Francisco hotel last week later roughed him up, police said. Full Story
Top
Edison's light bulb could be endangeredFri, 09 Feb 2007 03:42 am PST AP - One of the inventions that put this central New Jersey town on the map could go the way of the typewriter and the horse and buggy if some lawmakers have their way. Full Story
Top
Zsa Zsa's husband: I might be baby's dadFri, 09 Feb 2007 05:40 pm PST AP - The husband of actress Zsa Zsa Gabor said Friday that he had a decade-long affair with Anna Nicole Smith and may be her infant daughter's father. Full Story
Top
Heavy snow continues to bury N.Y. countySat, 10 Feb 2007 04:23 am PST AP - Ray DeLong took advantage of a break from the snow to use a blower to forge a path to his driveway as two contractors pushed streams of snow from the roof of his home. The brief reprieve Friday ended early Saturday as snow fell at a rate of 2 to 3 inches per hour, further burying a region already tested by nearly record snowfalls. Full Story
Top
Obama to announce 2008 plans in IllinoisSat, 10 Feb 2007 04:34 am PST AP - The Old State Capitol in Springfield, Ill. _ where Abraham Lincoln held office before running for president _ is the setting for the latest milestone in Sen. Barack Obama's remarkable rise to prominence. The first-term U.S. senator planned to formally announce his candidacy for president Saturday in the city where he began his political career just 10 years ago. Full Story
Top
Gates: Bombs tie Iran to Iraq extremistsSat, 10 Feb 2007 04:21 am PST AP - Serial numbers and other markings on bombs suggest that Iranians are linked to deadly explosives used by Iraqi militants, Defense Secretary Robert Gates said Friday in some of the administration's first public assertions on evidence the military has collected. Full Story
Top
Is this year to burst CEO pay balloon?Fri, 09 Feb 2007 03:47 pm PSTAP - Will Robert Nardelli and Henry A. McKinnell do for executive pay what Enron Corp. did for corporate governance? Just as Enron Corp.'s meltdown led to tougher corporate governance regulations, the eye-popping packages those executives received when they exited CEO jobs at Home Depot and Pfizer have caused everyone from President Bush to professional compensation consultants to suggest runaway pay needs to be reined in. Full Story
Top
US to study Agent Orange depot clean-upThu, 08 Feb 2007 11:37 pm PST AFP - The United States have offered Vietnam cash to study the clean-up a former depot that stored Agent Orange, the wartime US chemical blamed for a range of diseases and birth defects. Full Story
Top
Mom allegedly leaves kids in car to tanFri, 09 Feb 2007 07:02 pm PSTAP - Sheboygan police arrested a woman after she allegedly left her two children in a freezing car for 20 minutes while she went tanning. Full Story
Top
Manure: You may be walking on it soonFri, 09 Feb 2007 10:42 pm PST AP - Home-buyers of tomorrow could find themselves walking across floors made from manure. Researchers at Michigan State University and the U.S. Department of Agriculture insist it's no cow pie in the sky dream. They say that fiber from processed and sterilized cow manure could take the place of sawdust in making fiberboard, which is used to make everything from furniture to flooring to store shelves. And the resulting product smells just fine. Full Story
Top
Safety officials eye child seat reformsThu, 08 Feb 2007 01:59 pm PST AP - Citing confusion over child safety seats in cars, federal officials said Thursday they plan to undertake a new education campaign for parents and upgrade rules for the seats. Full Story
Top
Three donors shape future of museumFri, 09 Feb 2007 02:33 pm PST AP - From Mark Rothko's bold works with color to Gerhard Richter's realistic painting of two burning candles, a new exhibit of art from the last 60 years provides a glimpse of the Dallas Museum of Art's future. Full Story
Top
Modern art sales fetch European recordFri, 09 Feb 2007 11:48 am PST AFP - London auction houses Christie's and Sotheby's celebrated a record week of modern art sales, with a Francis Bacon painting crowning deals worth nearly 800 million dollars. Full Story
Top
Alleged fake cop had 'police station'Sat, 10 Feb 2007 04:36 am PST AP - Henry Terry had all the right accessories to impersonate a police officer, prosecutors say: authentic-looking uniforms, a car with lights and sirens, a pair of handcuffs. But Terry took it a step further, setting up a personal police station where he kept records of possible crimes and sometimes interrogated "suspects" who were handcuffed to a chair, said Suffolk County District Attorney Thomas Spota. Full Story
-------------------------------------------------------

Today's World News:
Envoys debate China's N.Korea nuke plan
Report: U.S. airstrike kills 8 Kurds
Violence erupts at Jerusalem holy site
Palestinians cheer Hamas-Fatah agreement
NATO allies question Afghan troop surge
Alcatel-Lucent plans to cut 12,500 jobs
8 killed in U.S. airstrike near Baghdad
Cuba sends key drug suspect to Colombia
UN rights mission to Darfur still waiting for visas
Singapore Airlines results up sharply, boosted by one-off gains
Muslim lifeguards patrol Sydney beach
-->
Envoys debate China's N.Korea nuke planFri, 09 Feb 2007 01:56 am PST AP - Envoys to international talks on ending North Korea's nuclear weapons program struggled Friday to find a compromise as differences emerged over a Chinese proposal on how to begin the disarmament process. Full Story
Top
Report: U.S. airstrike kills 8 KurdsFri, 09 Feb 2007 03:55 am PST AP - A U.S. airstrike hit a Kurdish position in northern Iraq, killing at least eight Kurdish troops and wounding six, Iraqi officials said Friday. The U.S. military said it was looking into the report. Full Story
Top
Violence erupts at Jerusalem holy siteFri, 09 Feb 2007 04:14 am PST AP - Israeli police stormed Islam's third holiest shrine Friday after hundreds of angry Islamic worshippers threw stones and bottles in an eruption of outrage over contentious Israeli renovation work at a disputed Old City holy site. Full Story
Top
Palestinians cheer Hamas-Fatah agreementFri, 09 Feb 2007 02:14 am PST AP - Gazans danced in the streets, honked car horns and set off fireworks to celebrate a Hamas-Fatah power-sharing deal they hope will avert civil war. Full Story
Top
NATO allies question Afghan troop surgeThu, 08 Feb 2007 11:29 pm PST AP - Defense Secretary Robert Gates is getting a lukewarm response to his plea for NATO allies to send more troops and aid for a spring offensive in Afghanistan. Full Story
Top
Alcatel-Lucent plans to cut 12,500 jobsFri, 09 Feb 2007 04:51 am PSTAP - Telecommunications equipment maker Alcatel-Lucent said Friday it swung to a loss in the fourth quarter and increased by 3,500 the number of jobs it plans to cut. Full Story
Top
8 killed in U.S. airstrike near BaghdadFri, 09 Feb 2007 03:23 am PSTAP - A U.S. airstrike killed eight suspected terrorists and destroyed a building south of Baghdad, the U.S. military said Friday. Full Story
Top
Cuba sends key drug suspect to ColombiaFri, 09 Feb 2007 01:17 am PSTAP - Cuba deported reputed drug kingpin Luis Hernando Gomez Bustamante to Colombia, which plans to extradite him to the United States to face trafficking and money laundering charges, officials said Thursday. Full Story
Top
UN rights mission to Darfur still waiting for visasFri, 09 Feb 2007 04:31 am PST AFP - The United Nations assessment mission to the strife-torn Sudanese region of Darfur is still awaiting visas from Khartoum one day before its departure, the mission's head has said. Full Story
Top
Singapore Airlines results up sharply, boosted by one-off gainsFri, 09 Feb 2007 04:34 am PST AFP - Singapore Airlines (SIA), one of the region's top carriers, has said its three months to December net profit jumped 48.6 percent on the back of record revenues and one-off gains from the sale of a leasing business. Full Story
Top
Muslim lifeguards patrol Sydney beachFri, 09 Feb 2007 02:55 am PST AP - A team of Muslim lifeguards _ including a woman dressed in a modest "burquini" _ began patrols this week on a Sydney beach that was the scene of frenzied race riots between Australia's Caucasian majority and its Middle Eastern minority in late 2005. Full Story
Top
------------------------------------------------------


Today's Most Popular News:
Smith autopsy to be performed Friday
Norway Reveals Doomsday Vault's Design
Thai woman tells of 25-year detour after catching wrong bus
Government sued over citizenship delays
Pentagon says pre-war intel not illegal
Rare white tiger triplets born at Argentine zoo
Walt Disney rescues hand-drawn animation
Canadian mint to unveil coin worth one million dollars
States try to ban driver distractions
Anna Nicole Smith lived in glare of tabloids
For women, nothing's like the smell of men's sweat
Candy with a surprise inside! Okay, it's a finger
Violence erupts at Jerusalem holy site
What drew us to Anna Nicole
Brazilian saves grandson from anaconda
Venezuela to nationalize power company
Ku Klux Klan reportedly on the rise
U.S. says 1 in 150 children have autism
Palestinians cheer Hamas-Fatah agreement
Snow squalls bury upstate New York
-->
Smith autopsy to be performed FridayFri, 09 Feb 2007 02:22 am PST AP - As a former Playboy playmate, jeans model, widow of an octogenarian oil tycoon and reality TV star, Anna Nicole Smith's life played out like an extraordinary tabloid tale. It appears her death will too. Full Story
Top
Norway Reveals Doomsday Vault's DesignThu, 08 Feb 2007 04:01 pm PSTLiveScience.com - Designs for a doomsday vault for seeds of the world, to be carved deep into frozen rock on an island not far from the North Pole, were revealed today by the government of Norway. Full Story
Top
Thai woman tells of 25-year detour after catching wrong busWed, 07 Feb 2007 11:55 pm PST AFP - A Thai mother who was lost for 25 years after catching the wrong bus home has spoken of her ordeal after being reunited with her family thanks to simple song. Full Story
Top
Government sued over citizenship delaysThu, 08 Feb 2007 03:52 pm PST AP - Eight immigrants who have waited years for their citizenship applications to clear tougher post-9/11 background checks claim in a lawsuit filed Thursday that the delays violate their constitutional rights of due process. Full Story
Top
Pentagon says pre-war intel not illegalFri, 09 Feb 2007 03:24 am PST AP - A "very damning" report by the Defense Department's inspector general depicts a Pentagon that purposely manipulated intelligence in an effort to link Saddam Hussein to al-Qaida in the runup to the U.S. invasion of Iraq, says the chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee. Full Story
Top
Rare white tiger triplets born at Argentine zooThu, 08 Feb 2007 12:28 pm PST Reuters - Three rare white tiger cubs delighted visitors at the Buenos Aires zoo on Thursday, tumbling in the grass of their enclosure in their first public appearance since being born late last year. Full Story
Top
Walt Disney rescues hand-drawn animationThu, 08 Feb 2007 03:45 pm PSTReuters - Hand-drawn animation, out of fashion in the computer age, experienced a rescue worthy of a fairy tale on Thursday, when Walt Disney animators announced they would bring back the art form to the big screen. Full Story
Top
Canadian mint to unveil coin worth one million dollarsThu, 08 Feb 2007 12:11 pm PST AFP - The Royal Canadian Mint will soon unveil a gold coin worth one million Canadian dollars (850,000 US dollars), an official told AFP. Full Story
Top
States try to ban driver distractionsThu, 08 Feb 2007 11:24 am PST AP - Put down the flute and keep your eyes on the road. Full Story
Top
Anna Nicole Smith lived in glare of tabloidsThu, 08 Feb 2007 05:54 pm PST Reuters - From her first Playboy centerfold and marriage to an 89-year-old oil tycoon to the mysterious death of her adult son, Anna Nicole Smith lived her life in a special corner of America -- the often garish world of supermarket tabloids. Full Story
Top
For women, nothing's like the smell of men's sweatThu, 08 Feb 2007 06:42 am PST Reuters - For women, apparently there's nothing like the smell of a man's sweat. Full Story
Top
Candy with a surprise inside! Okay, it's a fingerThu, 08 Feb 2007 06:36 am PST Reuters - A man in Germany was put off his Italian chocolate treat when he noticed that a bump in the bar was not a nut but part of a human finger. Full Story
Top
Violence erupts at Jerusalem holy siteFri, 09 Feb 2007 04:14 am PST AP - Israeli police stormed Islam's third holiest shrine Friday after hundreds of angry Islamic worshippers threw stones and bottles in an eruption of outrage over contentious Israeli renovation work at a disputed Old City holy site. Full Story
Top
What drew us to Anna NicoleThu, 08 Feb 2007 08:00 pm PST AP - Anybody who arrived from Mars and wanted to know what all the fuss was over this Anna Nicole Smith would do well to watch just one clip: her appearance at the 2004 American Music Awards. Full Story
Top
Brazilian saves grandson from anacondaFri, 09 Feb 2007 03:05 am PST AP - A 66-year-old Brazilian saved his grandson from the grip of a 16-foot-long anaconda by beating the snake with rocks and a knife for half an hour, police said Thursday. Full Story
Top
Venezuela to nationalize power companyThu, 08 Feb 2007 06:49 pm PST AP - President Hugo Chavez's government clinched the nationalization of Venezuela's largest private electric company Thursday, signing an agreement to buy a controlling stake in Electricidad de Caracas from its U.S.-based owner, AES Corp., for $739 million. Full Story
Top
Ku Klux Klan reportedly on the riseThu, 08 Feb 2007 01:43 pm PST Reuters - The white supremacist Ku Klux Klan is on the rise in the United States and is exploiting the issue of illegal immigration to attract new members, according to a new report by the Anti-Defamation League. Full Story
Top
U.S. says 1 in 150 children have autismFri, 09 Feb 2007 02:44 am PST AP - The largest U.S. study of autism has found that the troubling condition is more common than previously understood. Full Story
Top
Palestinians cheer Hamas-Fatah agreementFri, 09 Feb 2007 02:14 am PST AP - Gazans danced in the streets, honked car horns and set off fireworks to celebrate a Hamas-Fatah power-sharing deal they hope will avert civil war. Full Story
Top
Snow squalls bury upstate New YorkThu, 08 Feb 2007 10:30 pm PST AP - While the northern Plains and Northeast shiver in dangerously cold temperatures, the folks in upstate New York are keeping warm shoveling snow _ lots of snow. Full Story
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Today's World News:
U.S. military says copter down in Iraq
China to increase imports from Africa
Rival Palestinian leaders meet in Mecca
Child porn ring uncovered in Austria
Envoys gather for N. Korea nuclear talks
Parcel bomb injures Welsh office worker
Census dept. official killed in Iraq
Church names 1st female bishop in Cuba
Vogts agrees to coach Nigeria
Glitter's Vietnam jail term cut by 3 months
Murder in paradise kills romantic dream of utopia
-->
U.S. military says copter down in IraqWed, 07 Feb 2007 04:47 am PST AP - A Sea Knight helicopter went down northwest of Baghdad on Wednesday, the military said, the fifth helicopter lost in Iraq in just over two weeks. Full Story
Top
China to increase imports from AfricaWed, 07 Feb 2007 04:52 am PST AP - Chinese President Hu Jintao promised Wednesday to increase imports from Africa, responding to fears about the trade deficit that increased as China pumped unprecedented aid, investment and loans into the poor but resource-rich continent. Full Story
Top
Rival Palestinian leaders meet in MeccaWed, 07 Feb 2007 03:46 am PST AP - Rival Palestinian leaders on Wednesday began open-ended talks in Islam's holy city optimistic that they could reach an agreement to end their bloody street battles and resume the peace process with Israel. Full Story
Top
Child porn ring uncovered in AustriaWed, 07 Feb 2007 04:08 am PST AP - Austrian authorities said Wednesday they have uncovered a major international child pornography ring involving more than 2,360 suspects from 77 countries, including hundreds in the United States, who paid to view videos of young children being sexually abused. Full Story
Top
Envoys gather for N. Korea nuclear talksWed, 07 Feb 2007 02:26 am PST AP - Envoys to North Korean disarmament talks began gathering Wednesday, and the chief U.S. negotiator said he expected "hard bargaining" over new proposals to get the North to abandon its nuclear programs. Full Story
Top
Parcel bomb injures Welsh office workerWed, 07 Feb 2007 04:50 am PSTAP - A letter bomb exploded at a motor vehicle office in Wales on Wednesday, injuring a woman in the third such attack in as many days. Full Story
Top
Census dept. official killed in IraqWed, 07 Feb 2007 02:19 am PSTAP - A female official with the Census Department was shot to death Wednesday while she was riding to work with her husband in northern Iraq, police said. Full Story
Top
Church names 1st female bishop in CubaTue, 06 Feb 2007 11:09 pm PSTAP - The Episcopal Church has named a woman as bishop in Cuba, the first such appointment by the church in the developing world, church officials said Tuesday. Full Story
Top
Vogts agrees to coach NigeriaWed, 07 Feb 2007 04:40 am PST AFP - Former Germany and Scotland boss Berti Vogts has officially agreed to coach Nigeria until the 2010 World Cup in South Africa. Full Story
Top
Glitter's Vietnam jail term cut by 3 monthsWed, 07 Feb 2007 04:47 am PST AFP - A Vietnamese court has reduced British pop singer Gary Glitter's prison term for child molestation by three months, a judge said, moving forward his release date to August 2008. Full Story
Top
Murder in paradise kills romantic dream of utopiaWed, 07 Feb 2007 12:50 am PST AFP - The first murder in 150 years on Norfolk Island, a South Pacific paradise with a colourful link to the famous mutiny on the Bounty, killed more than just one young woman. Full Story
Top
------------------------------------------------------

Today's Top Stories:
U.S. military says copter down in Iraq
Democrats seek tougher action on Iraq
U.S. astronaut released from jail
Rival Palestinian leaders meet in Mecca
Astronaut charged in kidnap-murder plot
Death toll of U.S. troops in Iraq rising
TiVo, Amazon.com offer video downloads
Gates: Secure data remain key challenge
Singer Frankie Laine dies at 93
Celtics lose 15th straight game
U.S. military confirms transport chopper down in Iraq
Palestinian rivals start crisis talks in Mecca
China retakes center stage in North Korea crisis
Afghans flee town as Taliban dig in for NATO raid
French Muslims sue magazine over cartoons
Gunmen kill seven in Acapulco
U.S. sent pallets of cash to Baghdad
U.S. awards record number of green buildings
China's Hu rejects 'colonial' tag on South Africa visit
Rival Palestinian leaders vow to reach deal in Mecca
-->
U.S. military says copter down in IraqWed, 07 Feb 2007 04:47 am PST AP - A Sea Knight helicopter went down northwest of Baghdad on Wednesday, the military said, the fifth helicopter lost in Iraq in just over two weeks. Full Story
Top
Democrats seek tougher action on IraqWed, 07 Feb 2007 03:45 am PST AP - Tired of waiting for an opportunity to try to stop the war in Iraq, some Democrats say they want to use legislation approving billions of dollars in war spending to insist that President Bush not send more troops. Full Story
Top
U.S. astronaut released from jailWed, 07 Feb 2007 04:51 am PST AP - A NASA astronaut is free on bail but she has to wear a monitoring device after being charged with attempted murder in a case allegedly involving a possible romantic rival. Police in Orlando, Fla, say the evidence linked to Lisa Nowak includes a steel mallet, knife, rubber tubing and garbage bags. Full Story
Top
Rival Palestinian leaders meet in MeccaWed, 07 Feb 2007 03:46 am PST AP - Rival Palestinian leaders on Wednesday began open-ended talks in Islam's holy city optimistic that they could reach an agreement to end their bloody street battles and resume the peace process with Israel. Full Story
Top
Astronaut charged in kidnap-murder plotTue, 06 Feb 2007 05:37 pm PST Reuters - A U.S. space shuttle astronaut was accused on Tuesday of trying to kidnap and kill a rival for the affections of a male astronaut after she drove 950 miles wearing diapers to confront the woman. Full Story
Top
Death toll of U.S. troops in Iraq risingWed, 07 Feb 2007 04:21 am PST AP - More American troops were killed in combat in Iraq over the past four months _ at least 334 through Jan. 31 _ than in any comparable stretch since the war began, according to an Associated Press analysis of casualty records. Full Story
Top
TiVo, Amazon.com offer video downloadsWed, 07 Feb 2007 04:44 am PSTAP - Amazon.com Inc. and TiVo Inc. have jumped into the digital download wars _ with a twist. The new partners will beam movies and TV shows directly to their customers' living rooms. Full Story
Top
Gates: Secure data remain key challengeWed, 07 Feb 2007 04:42 am PST AP - Keeping information secure in this age of laptop-lugging workers is the tech industry's most formidable challenge, Microsoft Corp. Chairman Bill Gates said Tuesday. Full Story
Top
Singer Frankie Laine dies at 93Wed, 07 Feb 2007 04:41 am PST AP - Frankie Laine, the big-voiced singer whose string of hits made him one of the most popular entertainers of the 1950s, died Tuesday. He was 93. Full Story
Top
Celtics lose 15th straight gameWed, 07 Feb 2007 04:39 am PST AP - The Boston Celtics are in the midst of the worst losing streak in club history and there is no relief in sight. Boston dropped its 15th straight game, losing to Detroit 109-102 on Tuesday night. The Celtics last won on Jan. 5 and have allowed at least 100 points in five straight games. Full Story
Top
U.S. military confirms transport chopper down in IraqWed, 07 Feb 2007 04:42 am PSTReuters - The U.S. military confirmed on Wednesday that a transport helicopter had come down near Baghdad but declined comment on any casualties. Full Story
Top
Palestinian rivals start crisis talks in MeccaWed, 07 Feb 2007 03:31 am PST Reuters - Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas and his Hamas rivals began crisis talks on Wednesday with a pledge not to leave Saudi Arabia until they had reached an agreement that would end deadly factional fighting. Full Story
Top
China retakes center stage in North Korea crisisWed, 07 Feb 2007 01:06 am PST Reuters - Delegates to six-party talks began converging on the Chinese capital on Wednesday seeking to defuse North Korea's smoldering nuclear crisis, but envoys and analysts cautioned that any final deal is a distant prospect. Full Story
Top
Afghans flee town as Taliban dig in for NATO raidWed, 07 Feb 2007 03:38 am PST Reuters - More than 1,000 villagers have fled a southern Afghan town as Taliban fighters dig in to repel NATO efforts to drive them out, residents and officials said on Wednesday. Full Story
Top
French Muslims sue magazine over cartoonsWed, 07 Feb 2007 12:35 am PST Reuters - A French court case shining light on the gray area where free speech and religious sensitivities overlap opens on Wednesday when Muslim groups sue a satirical magazine that published cartoons of the Prophet Mohammad. Full Story
Top
Gunmen kill seven in AcapulcoTue, 06 Feb 2007 08:29 pm PST Reuters - Gunmen disguised as soldiers launched brazen attacks on police stations and killed seven people on Tuesday in the violent Mexican resort of Acapulco, defying a military crackdown against drug gangs. Full Story
Top
U.S. sent pallets of cash to BaghdadTue, 06 Feb 2007 05:46 pm PST Reuters - The U.S. Federal Reserve sent record payouts of more than $4 billion in cash to Baghdad on giant pallets aboard military planes shortly before the United States gave control back to Iraqis, lawmakers said on Tuesday. Full Story
Top
U.S. awards record number of green buildingsTue, 06 Feb 2007 09:46 pm PSTReuters - A record number of buildings, from skyscrapers to supermarkets, won special recognition by U.S. regulators for being energy efficient in 2006. Full Story
Top
China's Hu rejects 'colonial' tag on South Africa visitWed, 07 Feb 2007 03:36 am PST AFP - Chinese President Hu Jintao has refuted any suggestion that Beijing was forming neo-colonialist ties with Africa in its bid to access the vast natural resources of the world's poorest continent. Full Story
Top
Rival Palestinian leaders vow to reach deal in MeccaWed, 07 Feb 2007 04:43 am PST AFP - Palestinian president Mahmud Abbas and Hamas supremo Khaled Meshaal have vowed not to leave the Muslim holy city of Mecca without a deal to end their deadly power struggle. Full Story
Top
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Past Week Breaking NewsEvery day, our editors scour the web for news items of interest in the areas of world events, religion, and technology. Here are some choice news that we found this past week:
Jesus Christ Superstar has 'brought more people to Christianity than any other...
70,000 Christians languish in N. Korean prison camps: U.S. Christian group
Survey finds 300 million China believers
Prosecutor says religious parents punished their 8-year-old son to death
North Carolina: New bill to allow courtroom oaths on Koran
Colts' coach more proud of Christ than 'blackness'
As European worship steadily declines, many grand old buildings have fallen...
Professor examines why we worship football
Today Marks Dr. Alan Cairns' Last Official Sunday as Senior Minister of FFPC
Organic seal may soon mean 'clone-free,' too
Imam leads Democrats in prayer of conversion
Pastor honored for faithfulness to Scripture
Mayor converts to Islam; wants name change
Prof: Religions Must Conform to Canadian 'Charter Values'The following are some other popular breaking news of this past week:
Emerging Church: Beer and the Bible
Haggard: I'm back on straight and narrow
Hillary's Religious Roots
'Megachurches' Growing Ever Faster
Churches gear up for Evolution Sunday
Required STD shots worry some parents
Will Pope Benedict become a Mormon after he dies?
Museum brings creationism to life
New ecumenical organization to meet
Campaign launched on behalf of German teenmore interesting news...
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

http://www.israelmilitary.net/showthread.php?t=1306
-----------------------------------------------------------
US at a loss as Iraq helicopter toll mounts
With seven deaths in three weeks, Iraq is becoming increasingly dangerous for the several hundred US military helicopters flying missions there. more
- Religion on march in China- Porn ring scandal reaches Australia

I am not a terrorist: Brigitte
Frenchman accused of plotting to blow up nuclear and military sites in Australia denies allegations. more
- Iran accuses US of kidnap plot- Democrats lead witch-hunt over Iraq's missing billions

Court remands murder suspect
12:23pm Melbourne man held over fatal stabbing of suspected drug dealer. more
- Hicks torture inquiry sought- Doctors to face ban on drug advertising

Bush wants health, education funds for war
George Bush proposes cuts to health care, education, and transportation, searching for new money to pay for defence programs and Iraq war. more
- Republican block to Senate war debate- Giuliani's hint spices up guessing game

- Brigitte gets day in court, 3½ years on
------------------------------------------------
Witness backs Hicks abuse fears
12:23pm US officer reported sexual abuse of Taliban prisoners weeks after David Hicks says he was anally penetrated by American captors. more
Hicks could be sent home, says Ruddock

Friendly-fire video unleashes storm
7:13am Cockpit video of two US pilots mistakenly killing a British soldier in Iraq has been leaked to the media. more
- US astronaut charged with attempted murder- Bush wants health, education funds for war

- US military 'shirt-front' Hicks lawyer

US sets up last-ditch plan to end conflict
US campaign to stabilise Baghdad expected to commence, with officers saying it would be on a scale "unlike anything the city has seen". more
- Helicopter toll alarms American military- Iraqi Air Force in battle to get off ground

PM spoke his mind: White House
6:24am John Howard was exercising free speech when he said terrorists would welcome a Democratic presidential win, spokesman says. more
Howard defiant on Obama

Bombs kill 76 in Baghdad markets
Three bomb attacks at Baghdad markets kill at least 76 as Iraqis mark first anniversary of a Shi'ite shrine bombing. more
- Saddam vice-president sentenced to death- Roadside bombs made in Iran, claims US

Obama hits back at Howard
6:10am US presidential hopeful Barack Obama blasts John Howard's comments on troop withdrawal from Iraq as "empty rhetoric". more
Howard attacks US presidential hopeful

US militarism destabilising the world: Putin
Russian President berates US, saying Washington's militarism has fostered global instability and forced vulnerable nations to seek nuclear weapons. more
- Third commander takes over in Iraq- Israel calls to keep ban
NATIONAL
Columnists Letters Features
Eye in the sky makes desert safer for diggers
Australian troops patrolling the Iraqi desert are using new unmanned aircraft to search ahead for ambushes. more

Seven dead in US chopper crash
6:24am US troops aboard a military helicopter die as it crashes near Baghdad, the fifth aircraft to be lost in Iraq in three weeks. more
I am not a terrorist: Brigitte Hicks torture inquiry sought

Blair backs US after video leak
Tony Blair defends "special relationship" with US after video of mistaken attack by US warplanes that killed British soldier was leaked to media. more
- Democrats lead witch-hunt over Iraq's missing billions- Iran accuses US of kidnap plot

Obama: White House backs Howard, then backs away



NEWS.com.au
Stephen, this is your NEWS.com.au Newspulse update for Tuesday, 13 February 2007

Wild life ... Anna Nicole Smith has been pictured in a bedroom romp with a politician, while a celebrity website reveals her kitchen fridge contained nothing but methadone and diet drinks / AP and Reuters More
Race to cash in on Brock legend
THE race car in which Peter Brock died will be rebuilt and put on show with fans charged $15 to view the racing ace's last ride, as a row erupts over his debt ridden estate, which may only be worth $200,000.
Mercedes Corby: Drug claims 'motivated by spite'
Extortion bid: 'Bikie' con leaves families in fear
Obama: White House backs Howard, then backs away
Rocky Balboa competition

Last chanceHit the red carpet with Stallone at the premiere of Rocky Balboa.
Network feature

Hot destinations.This year's travel trends and the holiday hotspots for 2007
Advertisement
Exclusive Offer
Until 30 April 2007, you can enjoy our special offer with a complimentary $50 credit voucher.

The Nation
More The Nation News
Rain not enough to give a dam
LATE summer rain in three states has settled the dust, raised spirits and even lifted dam levels, but authorities say more is still needed to break the drought.
Panthers: League star exonerated over drunken brawl claim
Invasion: Summer of snakes keeps city's experts busy
The World
More The World News
Anti-whaling activists attacked
GREENPEACE has denounced anti-whaling activists as protesters and hunters blame each other for a heavy collision in icy Antarctic waters.

3 comments:

redz said...

Islam and Slavery through the Ages: Slave Sultans and Slave Mujahids

By Afroz, Sultana (Lecturer in History at the University of the West Indies, Mona Campus, Jamaica. She completed her doctoral degree in American History with a specialization in US Foreign Policy in South Asia. She is the co-author of The Political Economy of Food and Agriculture in the Caribbean, and is working on a manuscript entitled Invisible Yet Invincible: The Histoiy of the Muslim Umma in Jamaica.)

(Read also The Jihad of 1831–1832: The Misunderstood Baptist Rebellion in Jamaica )

Source: Islamic L. & Culture 97 (2000)

INTRODUCTION

Slavery is reprobated by the Islamic principles of liberty,
equality and universal brotherhood and discountenanced by the
Islamic code. Yet, the absence of an explicit Qur’anic command
prohibiting slavery and the existence of slavery in Islamic societies
have created a paradoxical situation often exploited by the rival
creeds. That Islam accepted slavery as only a transitional
institution between war and eventual peace in view of political and
socio-economic constraints, rather than being prescribed, reveals
the falseness of the aspersions of the non-Muslims. Prophet
Muhammad (SAW) compared equality and brotherhood in Islam
`with “the teeth of a comb”. There is neither lineage nor castes in
Islam: La Bedawi Fil Islam - there is no Bedouinism in Islam. No
man can be possessed by another. He is Allah’s creation and thus
requires submission to the Will of Allah and obedience to His
Law.

This article attempts to examine the position of slavery in
Islam as ordained by the Holy Qur’an and Sunnah, the traditions of
the Prophet Muhammad (SAW). Muslim Slave dynasties ruling in
Egypt and India have been studied to ascertain the enlightened
nature of slavery in Islamic societies. Jihad (struggles or holy
wars) carried out by Muslims who became victims of the Atlantic
slave trade with particular reference to Jamaica, Haiti and Brazil
underscores the objective of the Islamic faith to establish human
dignity.

HISTORICAL OVERVIEW AND THE ADVENT OF ISLAM

The practice of slavery can be historically traced in every age
and in every nation. The Jews, the Greeks and the Romans all
recognized and practiced praedial servitude as well as household
slavery. Despite all the barbaric acts committed on the slaves in
ancient times, the Code of Hammurabi dealing with slavery
appears enlightened compared with the other slave systems. Of all
the slave institutions, the slavocracy of the Americas is considered
to be the worst and grossest that humanity has witnessed.

Slavery was prevalent throughout the world as an
acknowledged fact of socio-economic existence at the time when
Islam was revealed in the seventh century. Judaism enjoined
slavery, and Christianity was silent about it. The advent of Islam
initiated the restoration of human dignity to mankind and gave a
deathblow to the perpetual serfdom of the slaves and to the
institution of slavery as a source of economic labor. Slavery by
purchase and sale was discountenanced. “Ye proceed one from
another” serves as Allah’s repeated reminder to mankind that
everyone is of the same human status. The greatness of the
Islamic faith can be understood from the emotional words of a
former member of the racist American white supremacist group
Ku Klux Klan (KKK) who has accepted Islam: “Allah created
Islam with a purity that could not be rivaled.” Furthermore, Islam
recognizes a common descent, abode as well as return for all men,
master and slave alike. “You are all sons of Adam and Adam was
created from dust.” Thus, with the advent of Islam, the status and
position of slaves changed marvelously and no distinction was
held between a slave and a free man in matters secular or religious,
and honor was placed on piety for all classes of people.

Islam, however, allowed both polygamy and slavery because of
societal necessities but laid down strict restrictions pertaining to
inequities, injustices and oppression. Arising out of the exigencies
during jihad (holy wars), the practices of slavery and polygamy
became permissible in Islam with a view to enhancing the growth
and development of the Muslim ummah (community) while
ensuring the political, economic and social security of the
community. While polygamy was restrained by limiting the
maximum number of contemporaneous marriages, and by making
absolute equity towards all obligatory on the man, the institution of
slavery was destined to become extinct through a gradual process
because of the Islamic message of peace, of universalism, of
brotherhood, of the unity of human beings and its virtues of
courage, generosity, cleanliness, righteousness and piety. Islam
urged the emancipation of slaves, as a mandatory obligation or as a
recommended action. The unity of humanity, emphasized even in
the Prophet’s farewell address last pilgrimage “Allah has made
you brethren one to another, so be not divided. An Arab has no
preference over a non-Arab, nor a non-Arab over an Arab; nor is a
white one to be preferred to a dark one, nor a dark one to a white
one…” left no room for slavery or bondage, nor for racism. Islam
is the sworn enemy of racism, which became the basis of the
Atlantic slave trade.

Islam’s prescription of gradual elimination of slavery rather
than immediate abolition is best explained by Hazrat Bilal Thn
Rabah, a former slave of Abbyssinian origin who was appointed
the first muezzin (person who chants the call to prayer at the
appointed time for prayer) in Islam by Prophet Muhammad
(SAW):

Islam, apparently, intended to see all slaves freed, but did
not make it an immediate and unconditional duty
incumbent upon all masters as this would hurt all parties.
The world is now (7th century) based on the labor of the
slaves. Should Islam or any other system have sought to
stop the, institution of slavery all at once it would lead to
universal anarchy and disturbances in which both masters
and slaves would suffer. The masters’ loss is clear. As for
the slaves, they would find themselves without anyone to
take care of their needs. Unaccustomed to independence
and self-reliance, they would in most of the cases seek to
satisfy their needs through criminal assaults and
exhortations. Crimes of all sorts would spread widely;
society would suffer incurably and there would be no more
peace or secunty.

SLAVE WOMEN AND POLYGAMY

The masters were permitted and encouraged to many the
slave-girls they had in their possession: “Let them many from the
believing maids whom your right hand possess. Allah knoweth
best (concerning) your faith. Ye (proceed) one from another; so
wed them by permission of their folk, and give unto them their
portion in kindness” (4:25). Polygamy in Islam is thus sanctioned
to extend protection to the widowed slaves and orphaned girls who
come under the care of guardians during war-time, with a view to
preventing social ills. For the sound functioning of the family,
marriage became conditional upon the consent of the slave woman,
an extension of a portion of the man’s wealth (mahr or dower) to
the woman, the number of contemporaneous wives limited to four,
and equitable justice to all the wives made obligatory on the part of
the man.

Prophet Muhammad (SAW) married Maria, the Christian
Coptic slave girl sent to him by the head of the Coptic Church in
Cairo. Not only did he give her respect and restore her human
dignity but he also took her as his own, exemplifying the highest
respect Islam endows to women. Maria al-Qibtiya (May Allah be
pleased with her) gained the same title of respect as the Prophet’s
wives, Umm al-Mu `minuni Mother of the Believers.

THE INSTITUTION OF MUKATABAH

Voluntary emancipation by the masters was complemented by
the institution of Mulcatabah, whereby if masters were asked to
write down terms of freedom by the slaves, they were to yield to
them in return for a certain amount of money agreed upon by both
of them. The Holy Qur’an says: “And as for those who ask for a
writing from among those whom your right hands possessed, give
them the writing” (24:33). The master could in such a case neither
refuse nor delay the freeing of a slave. He was required to set the
slave free on receiving the ransom. Otherwise the slave could
move the court to decree his enfranchisement.

The institution of Mukatabah paved the way for the freedom of
all those slaves who desired their freedom and did not need to wait
on their master’s good will or piety. The Islamic Government
became responsible for their freedom and guaranteed that the slave
would henceforth work for his master in return for a fixed
payment, or would make arrangements for him to work outside for
anyone else on hire until the time he is able to collect the money
needed to buy his freedom. The Public Exchequer often bought the
freedom of the slaves directly or advanced loans to slaves seeking
to purchase their own freedom.

Often alms were collected as far as from Africa for buying the
freedom of slaves. The wealth derived from Az-Zakat (poor rate),
which is an obligatory annual tax of 2.5 per cent assessed on a
person’s total residual wealth, also formed a source to buy freedom
for slaves who were unable to work out their own liberty with the
help of their personal earnings. The Qur’anic verse (9:10)
describing the use of Az-Zakat says: “Alms are only for the poor
and the needy, and the officials (appointed) over them… and the
ransoming of captives”(9: 60).

The principles of Islam and the policies and actions taken by
the Islamic Government under the Prophet’s leadership to free
slaves practically put an end to slavery in the Arabian peninsula
and helped create an almost perfect equality in society. The source
that prevented the total effacement of slavery and the
establishment of a just society based on a written constitution - the
Constitution of Medina, was war. Wars remained a source of
slavery because of prisoners of war. Captives who could not be set
free for war crimes became slaves and were put to service, often in
households until occasion arose for their manumission.

In restoring the human status and dignity of slaves in society,
the Holy Prophet went far beyond enunciating the Qur’anic
principles of equality and fair treatment, and has left behind some
admirable traditions. He established a brotherhood between some
Arab chiefs and some freed slaves. Thus, he joined Bilal Ibn
Rabab, an ex-slave and Khalid, son of Ru-waihata Al Khas’ami;
Zayd, the freed slave of the Prophet and Hamza, the uncle of the
Prophet; and Kharijah son of Zayd and Abu Bakr. This relationship
of brotherhood was a real bond akin to blood relationship. The two
persons thus made brothers inherited from each other just as only
blood relations are entitled.

For a better social identity, Prophet Muhammad (SAW)
encouraged marriage between freed slaves and well-established
citizens /aristocrats/nobles. The Prophet showed the way when he
married his cousin Zainab, daughter of Jahsh, to his ex-slave and
adopted son Zayd, paving the way for freed slaves to have
matrimonial relationship with the noble/aristocratic families of the
state - Qureishite. Zayd’s marriage set a precedent that
matrimonial ties in Islam were not to be dictated by the socio-
economic background of the families.

Slaves were exalted to the position of military commanders and
leaders. When the Holy Prophet sent an army, which consisted of
his very close companions, the acknowledged leaders of the Arabs,
he entrusted Zayd with the generalship of the army. After the death
of Zayd, the Holy Prophet appointed his son, Osma as the
commander of the army consisting of such illustrious men as Abu
Bakr and Omar, his two principal ministers and afterwards
successors (caliphs). Thus, slaves were given not only a status
equal and similar to others but were also raised to exalted positions
of heading the armies of free men. The Prophet commanded the
believers: “Hear and obey (the orders of your leaders) although the
man appointed above you as your leader be a Negro slave with a
raisin-like head as long as he continues to enforce among you
God’s law”. Thus even a slave could aspire to the highest office
in the Islamic State. Righteousness and appropriate skills,
apparently, were the basis of appointments.

Bilal Ibn Rabah, a former slave of Umayyah Ibn Khalaf the
leader of the powerthi Makkan tribe of Jumah, was one of the
earliest and best known disciples of the Prophet (SAW), whose
name shines among the highest ranks of historic Muslim notables.
He rose through his faith to the highest degree of honor and
distinction as the first muezzin in Islam, despite his previous social
condition. With his rich, deep and resonant voice, Bilal called the
adhan, five times a day, until the death of the Prophet (SAW),
summoning the believers to come to prayer, praising Allah,
bearing witness to His Unity and acknowledging the legitimacy of
the Prophet.

SLAVE DYNASTY: THE RULE OF THE RIGHTEOUS

Slaves raised by Muslim rulers and Sultans were not only
given their human dignity and status in society, but eventually
became rulers themselves establishing ruling dynasties in Egypt
and in India. Thoroughly drilled in Islamic jurisprudence and
disciplined to follow the Islamic code of life in accordance with
the Holy Qur’an and Sunnah, they established the rule of
righteousness, acknowledging the leadership of the most righteous and most

efficient administrator, in sharp contrast to the unislamic hereditary, dynastic rule.

A. The Mamlukes

A community of purchased bondsmen, maintained and
multiplied by a continuous stream of slaves bought, like
themselves and by themselves, from Asiatic salesmen was the
Maniluke dynasty in Egypt. They had established an exceptional
position and long dominion, seizing power from the Ayyubids in
1260 and capitulating to the Ottoman Sultan Selim in 1517. The
rule of the Mamlukes - the slave of today and the sovereign of
tomorrow - is unparalleled in the history of the world. The entire
governing body of the same slavish race, holding good for two
centuries and a half; illustrates the incredible qualities of the
Manilukes and system which they adhered to. The system
developed a pattern of succession, which enabled several gifted
leaders to rise to the top and stay there.

The origin of the Marniukes, meaning “owned men” goes back
to the days of the Salah al-Din (1 138-93), “rectitude of the faith,”
who adopted the practice of the Abbasids of importing Turkish
boys from central Asia and training them to be soldiers. Salah al-
Din’s Muslim chivalry displayed in capturing Jerusalem in 1187
was never overshadowed by the heroic Islamic virtues of courage,
generosity and piety and his affection among his followers - the
Mamlukes, who proved to be the most loyal of all.3o These
Manilukes, who became the largest element `within the Ayyubid
(descendents of Salah al-Din) armies, carried the banner of Islam
against the Seventh Crusade and captured France’s King Louis IX
and his army in 1250, thus, resonating the glories of Salah al-Din.

The first of the Mamlukes, Baybars the Bunduqdari (the holder
of the gun) was one of the best sovereigns who ever reigned over
the Muslims. Despite the harsh attitude of John Bagot Glubb,
towards the Muslims, he writes about Baybars: “We are, indeed,
forced to admit that he was a giant among men.” Under Baybars,
Egypt became the richest part of the Muslim world. The name of
the Manilukes reached every Muslim country with Baybars
earning the title of “Servant of the Two Holy Cities,” when Mecca
and Medina accepted Maniluk sovereignty. The dominance of the
Manilukes over the holy cities continued until 1517 when the
Ottoman Empire extended its rule over the Arabian Peninsula. The
political system of the Mamlukes that lasted 250 years was an
oligarchy of a small group of professional soldiers who were
ethnically of a race entirely different from the inhabitants. The
Maniluke system required that the ruling class of every generation
must come as boys (and sometimes girls) from their original
homeland, and that their descendants were not eligible to rule.
Hence, the establishment of the rule of the righteous, in sharp
contrast to the unislamic hereditary leadership established by
various Muslim dynasties.

To call such boys “slaves” in English is misleading. To many
poor nomadic families in central Asia, and the eastern shores of the
Black Sea, Egypt was envisioned as an earthly paradise, its street
paved with gold and therefore “gladly sold their sons into the
service of Muslim rulers.M Generally speaking, a boy became a
Mamluk when he was between ten and twelve, just old enough to
take care of himself but was doubtless a perfect natural rider. He
would be sold into the service of the reigning sultan or to one of
the emirs, and put into a barrack or dormitory with other
Marnlukes of his age. Besides receiving basic instruction in Islam
and Arabic, all the boys would be drilled in the care and riding of
horses, and trained in the use of weapons, which included the bow,
lance, sword and mace on horseback. During the rigorous training
period of eight to ten years, the Mamlukes developed a feeling of
group solidarity that lasted the rest of their lives. Upon completing
his military training, each maniluke received his liberation paper, a
horse, and his fighting equipment.

Even as a freedman, the Mamluke remained ioyal to the sultan
or emir who had trained and liberated him, to his teachers and
proctors, and to the men who had gone through training with him.
Each group of trainees tended to become a faction once within the
army. The best among them became emirs and from 1250 on,
Sultans of Egypt. In short, the men who had been trained as
manilukes became the owners and trainers of new maniluke boys
from central Asia or Circassia. The ties between master and
Mamluke were almost like a family relationship. Few sons of
Manilukes who got into the system ranked below the sultan’s and
even the emir’s Manilukes. The succession to the sultanate was
rarely hereditary. The Mamhike sultans usually rose through the
ranks of the sultan’s Mamlukes. His fellow Mamluke comrades, in
recognition of his military skill and political acumen, would
appoint one from among them as a sultan. In short, Maniluke
slavery under Muslim rulers of the Middle East was no disgrace.
On the contrary, the relationship ranked far above mere hired
service, to that of a family relationship. The Mamluke system gave
the less fortunate an opportunity to rise to the highest level in
society conforming with the Qur’anic statement that everyone is of
the same human status.

The empire of the Mamlukes, which stretched over Egypt,
Syria and the Hejaz in Arabia enjoyed not only widespread power
and prestige, but also a high degree of prosperity. The Maniluke
Empire was stronger, wealthier and more civilized than any
Western nation of that era. The bureaucratic administration was
regarded to be “the most efficient which existed in the Middle
Ages,” directed by “exceedingly capable rulers.” Manilukes were
often highly educated, as they were brought up in the school both
of war and peace. They were proficient in philosophy, divinity
and science, as well as in chivalry and arms. Thus, they were
qualified for high office and command. Many of the righteous
rulers were “of true benevolent and honourable men,” who
founded charitable, pious and literary endowments, schools and
colleges for medicine, philosophy, art and science, and orphan
homes. The hospital of Sultan Qalaoon comprised several wards
for segregating various diseases… “and was provided with
laboratories, a dispensary, baths, kitchens and store rooms. The
chief of its medical staff gave instruction in a properly equipped
lecture-room.”

While the Mamlukes reserved the military profession for
themselves and held the office of the sultanate, the Syrians and the
Egyptians formed an integral part of the various government
departments. The departments of trade, agriculture, wealth,
administration and justice, which were highly valued by the
Mamlukes, were left to the Syrians and Egyptians who could
thereby rise to high rank and great wealth. The Islamic values,
Muslim chivalry, and the incorporation of the natives within the
larger government machinery enabled the Manilukes to rule with
incredible magnificence for over 250 years.

B. The Delhi Sultanate

Contemporaneous to the Maniluke Empire, slaves of similar
Turkish background who became the loyal soldiers of the Afghan
highlanders of Ghazni and Ghor founded the Sultanate of Delhi in
India. Similar to the Mamluke and the Abbasid institutes which
recognized human dignity and offered opportunities to the sons of
the less fortunate to better themselves, the paternal care of the
ruling masters in Afghanistan saw the production of great men
from amongst their “owned” boys. The bonded men of a real
leader often proved “the equals of their master.” The Muslim
rulers found these able servants excellent advisors, gave them the
highest posts, and at times rewarded them by marriage with their
daughters.

From the heart of the Afghan mountains, Mahmud of Ghazni,
followed by Mohammad Ghori led campaigns against the
“idolaters” in India. There was no lack of volunteers to aid in the
holy war, as thousands coming from beyond the Oxus, prayed to
be granted the privilege of fighting for the faith. Loyalty of the
slaves together with their military and administrative skills earned
them positions of rulership in the conquered territories. Qutb-ud-
din Aybak, a former Turkish slave of Muhammad Ghori, was
appointed Governor of India in 1192 in recognition of his victory
over Rajput Prithvi Raj and the capture of Delhi. After Muhammad
Ghori’s death, he founded the independent kingdomlsultanate of
Delhi in 1206, becoming the first of the thirty-four Muslim kings
who ruled at Delhi from the beginning of the thirteenth century
until the invasion of Babur in 1526. Strong and energetic, a fine
rider and a good archer, well educated and of lavish generosity, he
had risen to the highest name in his master’s service. Muhammad
trusted Aybak as fully as he, himself was trusted by his elder
brother. Never did he treat him as his slave, but considered him to
be his social equal. Mohammad Bakhtiyar, a fellow marshal of
Aybak, further extended Muslim rule in Oudh, Bihar and Bengal in
the east. The successes of Muhammad Ghori were thus completed
with the energy of Aybak and Baktiyar, and all of Hindustanl
India, north of the Vmdhya range, came under Muslim rule.

The line Aybak established on an uneasy throne in India has
been given the name “Slave Kings”. Every aspect of Aybak’s
administration displayed the Islamic `virtues of courage, generosity,
tolerance, equity, brotherhood and justice, which were drilled into
him during his training period. Aybak, administered his sultanate
“in the ways of justice” and “the people were happy.” His
impartiality is extolled in the metaphorical phrase that “the wolf
and the sheep drank water out of the same pond.” The Hindus
both “high and low were treated with royal benignity”. His
munificence earned him the title Lakhbakhsh or Giver of lacs
(hundred thousand rupees).

Aybak’s reign marked the beginning of Muslim architecture in
India. The architectural monuments of Aybak speak of his
engineering feats and Islamic and Ghurid heritage. As the first
Muslim ruler in India, he built the great mosque called the Jami
Masjid, now known as the Quwwat al-Islam Mosque in Delhi.
Arches and domes were initially simulated with corbeling. Aybak
built the tallest minaret in the world (250 feet /75.8 meters), which
is known by his surname, the Qutb Minar (the Tower of Victory).
Still standing tall amidst the other Muslim architectural
monuments in Delhi, the Minar, built in 1199 with contrasting
white marble and redstone, displays jutting balconies with
alternate angular and rounded fluting, and Arabic inscriptions. The
congregational mosque at Ajmer, known as Arhai-din-ka-jhonpra
was also erected during the reign of Aybak in Delhi. The mosque,
which sits on a high plinth set halfway up one of Ajmer’s hills, had
a hypostyle hall, large and small corbeled domes and corbeled and
cusped arches, and a cusped mirab, exuberantly carved with
vegetal and epigraphic ornament in fiat relief.

Following Aybak’s accidental death while playing polo in
1210, the Muslim nobles offered the throne to Shams-ud-din
iltutmish, son-in-law of Aybak, and the most outstanding of his
slaves, who was made governor of Gwalior in 1196. He was a
member of a leading family of the Ilbaii Tribe of Turkrnans.
iltutmish is regarded to be the true founder of the dynasty of the
Slave Kings, which Aybak did not live long enough to consolidate.
He was unequalled “in beauty, virtue, intelligence, and nobleness
of character. No king so benevolent, sympathetic, reverent to the
learned and the old, ever rose by his own efforts to the cradle of
[an] empfre.” His gentleness of disposition and demeanor was in
sharp contrast to his Muslim chivalry, which completed the
submission of all India north of the Vindhyas.

The Slave Kings exemplified in schooling their daughters both
in war and peace, thus ensuring their position of respect and
prominent role in government affairs. In 1236, at the time of the
death of iltutmish, he named his daughter Raziyat-ud-din (Devoted
to the Faith) as his heir, remarking with prophetic truth that she
was a better man than any of her brothers. Raziya was a great monarch:
wise, just, generous, a benefactor to her realm, a
dispenser of equity, the protector of her people, and leader of her
armies. Raziya ruled for three (3) years but was later killed in a
battle in 1240.

Balban, a member of “The Forty” (Turkish slaves) who had
earned the title of Ulugh Khan, `Puissant lord’ in recognition of his
military genius, became king after the last of the male descendants
of iltutmish died in 1266. Throughout his forty years of power, he
never gave office to any but men of intelligence and integrity.
Slave as he was once, he came from a race of chiefs, and preserved
the dignity of a king. Balban, the slave, water-carrier, huntsman,
general, statesman, and sultan is one of the most striking figures
among many notable men in the long line of the kings of Delhi.
With the death of Balban, the benevolent mie of the Muslim slaves
belonging to the House of the Ghaznavids came to an end.

Evidently, the rule of the Muslim slaves in India was marked
with an extraordinary degree of equality, justice, generosity and
general prosperity. The greatness of the rulers was the result of
their thorough grooming in Islamic virtues in their early days as
“bonded” men or “sons” of the masters. Like the Manilukes, the
leadership of the Delhi Sultanate was based on righteousness
and meritocracy.

THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE AND THE MUMINUN
FROM AFRICA AND AL-ANDALUS

In sharp contrast to the Muslim slave system, which fostered
human dignity, equality and brotherhood, the slavocracy, upon
which was based the plantation economy of the New World,
carried out “cruelties more atrocious and unnatural than any
recorded of untutored and savage barbarians.” With the advent of
the Atlantic slave trade by the Europeans, many Muslims became
victims of this institution. Muslims were brought to the New
World from West and Central Africa and Andalusian Spain, which
had completely fallen into the hands of the centrali7ing monarchy
of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille in 1492. Contrary
to Islamic policy of freeing the captives after war and establishing
human dignity, Christian demands for religious homogeneity led to
forceful conversion, expulsion or exile of the Muslim population
from al-Andalus. Muslims who survived the wholesale massacre
and expulsion policy were penned like sheep and reduced to
slavery. So harsh and ruthless was the royal Spanish policy against
the Moors that Muslim scholars have opined that “it would take
the combined charity of Jesus and Mohammad to make Islam
forget or forgive the terrible wrongs inflicted upon the Andalusian
Muslims.”

Moorish captives who were schooled in Atlantic navigation,
however, were granted Royal Pardon by the Spanish Crown in
recognition of their seafaring skills to accompany Columbus on his
voyages. These Moorish conquerors and discoverers formed the
free Moorish Islamic societies in the New World since the coming
of Columbus. Subsequently, with the initiation in 1503, of the
Spanish slave trade exporting Moorish captives to the Americas,
these free Moorish societies became the nucleus of the Spanish
Maroon communities.

Contemporaneous to the enslavement of Moorish captives,
millions of mu `minim (Muslim believers) from West Africa
became victims of the Atlantic slave trade. Islam had already
become the dominant religion of West Africa when Europeans
initiated the Atlantic slave trade. Areas where Islam was present
during the slave trade were Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Sierra
Leone, Mali, Benin, Ghana, and Nigeria. The mobility of the
Muslims as traders, mara bouts (clerical teachers), ulama
(scholars), talib (students), and imams (J)rayer leaders) made them
susceptible to abduction for slavery by organized gangs,
unscrupulous traders, bandits, roaming soldiers, and occasional
kidnappers. Civil wars between Muslim and pagan rulers found
large numbers of Muslim captives being sold to the European slave
traders. There is no precise figure regarding the total number of
Africans or Muslims deported to the Americas. However, Sylviane
Diouf, with great skill and intelligent analyses of the available
empirical data, presents a hypothetical figure of 15 million
individuals deported from Africa and estimates that 50 percent of
them came from West Afiica.”~ She suggests that “an estimate of
15 to 20 percent, or between 2.25 and 3 million Muslims,” were
deported over both American continents and the Caribbean
Islands. Women constituted about 15 to 20 percent of the total
Muslim slave population.

Approximately 46 percent of the Africans forcefully brought to
North America came from regions with significant numbers of
Muslims. The French imports into their Caribbean colonies
Martinique (74 percent), Guadeloupe (56.4 percent) and French
Guiana (74 percent) - constituted a high percentage of
Senegambians and Guineans. Among the British West Indies
islands, Jamaica had 56.8 percent of her arrivals from Muslim
areas.Diouf states that “if counted as a whole, on a religious
basis rather than on an ethnic one the Muslims were probably more
numerous in the Americas than any other group among the arriving
Africans.”

A large proportion of the deported Muslims came from the
intellectual elite who were educated in Arabic, Islamic
jurisprudence and could write with great beauty and exactness the
Arabic alphabet and passages from the Holy Qur’an. They studied
at centers of learning such as Timbuktu, Jenne, Kano and Bouna.
West Indian historiography authenticates the literate and well-
disciplined background of the Muslim slaves. The biographical
notes from early Muslim slaves testify to the illustrious
background of the slaves, many of them coming from mulay (princely)
or noble families such as the Sherufa clan in Western
Sudan which claims descent from Prophet Muhammad (SAW).

Muslims condemned the Trans-Atlantic trade and rallied non-
Muslims to their cause against the European slave traders. Since
Islam forbids its followers to sell their brethren, African Muslims
did not raid their own people. They not only organized themselves
to resist the slave traders, but they also extended their protection to
the peasants against the European traders. Muslim captives were
often redeemed by their brethren by making monetary payment to
the slave captors.

Many Muslim slaves, as soon as they set their feet in the
Americas, fought unceasingly for their freedom. Jihad/resistance
in various forms became a common feature in the plantations of
the New World. A common resistance to the slave system was the
hijra/flight from servitude to establish their own ummah/communities
based on consensual leadership (shura) and Islamic
tradition and culture in inhospitable and inaccessible areas
throughout the Americas. The undaunted Muslims, apparently,
were inspired by the words of Allah, which sanction the sacredness
of life and migration from places hostile to Islam: “Live not in
places hostile to Islam, if you are able to migrate, And spacious
is God’s earth. Devotion and prayer may be shortened in times of
danger. Take every precaution for safety, but be bold and
undaunted in fight”. (Holy Qur’an 4:92-96) The prominent Islamic
features ofjihad hyra and ummah in the New World resonate the
jihad of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) against the Quraish enemies
in Makkah, his hyra to Medina and the establishment of the
Muslim ummah in that city during the early days of Islam. Samory
Rashid through careftil analyses encapsulate the ummah of the
African Muslim Maroons or commonly known as the Maroon communities
of the Americas.55 Such ummah have been identified
in Jamaica, Haiti, Brazil (known as Quilombos), Trinidad,
Suiinam, Cuba, Florida, Mexico, Colombia and Venezuela.

The earliest and perhaps the most resonant and persevering of
all the jihath of the Maroons in the New World, was the Maroon
War in Jamaica. The eighty-year jihad of the Muslim Maroons in
Jamaica, having caused heavy casualties of the “Red Coats” and
enormous monetary expenditure, ultimately compelled the British
authorities to offer peace and conclude treaties in 1739,
recognizing the Maroon territories as separate entities beyond the
jurisdiction of the British Colonial government. The Maroon
communities in Jamaica continue to exist to the present day as
autonomous territories. Cudjoe, the warrior leader of the several
Maroon communities and his Muslim brethren displayed their
power of endurance and their conspicuous worship of Allah by
their act of prostration on the occasion of the peace offer. The
adoption of a pious beginning of the Treaty - “In the Name of
God, Amerf’ or in Qur’anic term Bismillah, and the continuation of
the Islamic greeting, As-Salaamu-Alailcum as the official Council
greeting of the Moore Town Maroons even to this day, illustrate
the piety of the historical Maroon leaders of Jamaica.

The popular heroine, Grandy Nanny, whose real name was
Sarah, occupies an immortal position in the history of Jamaica and
Jamaican Maroons. The devotion and dependence of Grandy
Nanny on Allah in the struggle against plantocracy, and the
establishment of Divine Guidance, were answered by karamati
favours or miracles, which have been largely misunderstood.
Grandy Nanny, considered by the Maroons as the most illustrious
woman, never lost a battle during herjihad against the British.

Two of the greatest Maroon mujahids (fighters) in the New
World were Francois Macandal and Boukman of Haiti. Both of
them were marabouts (clerical teachers) and were educated in
Arabic and Islamic studies. Macandal, who was a warrior captive,
used his military skills to launch an assault against the white
planters in Haiti in the mid~18th century. Although he was betrayed
and burned at the stake, he is regarded as a forerunner to Toussaint
L’Ouverture, the leader of the Haitian revolution. Boukman, a
Muslim slave from Jamaica, launched the general revolt of the
slaves in 1791, which subsequently sparked the Haitian Revolution
led by Toussaint L’Ouverture abolishing slavery in Haiti in 1804.
Parallel to the Maroon communities, many Muslim slaves
submitted to the inhumane torturous life of slavery on the
plantations and accepted it as their fate - Submission to the Will of
Allah. Educated in Qur’anic studies, they believed that, “No
misfortune can happen on earth or in your souls but is recorded in
a decree before We bring it into existence: That is truly easy for
God” (Holy Qur’an 57:22). It is that all causes come from Allah
and that everything is within His control and power. Everything is
subject to His Will and nothing has a will of its own. The
acceptance of the Will of Allah is the unshakable belief in divine
decree and predestination, an essential element of irnan (faith).

Despite the oppression of the mind and soul carried out by
forceftul baptism, most became crypto-Muslims and remained
faithfhl to Islam, observing the practices privately as Sufis. Since
there is no compulsion in Islam as faith has to grow from within,
coercion and the baptismal rite encompassing the sprinkling of
water had no impact on the iman of the Muslim slaves. Slave
correspondences, accounts of contemporary officials and historians
reveal the authentic identities and faith of the so-called baptized
slaves. Research on publications such as the Islamic Educational
Theories of the nineteenth century reveal how Christians in
Antebellum America used the scholarship of Muslim slaves in the
translations of the Gospels to native African languages.

Evidently, these Muslim jurisprudents worked on the plantations
of Maryland, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Alabama and
their education, self .confidence, inteffigence, and
discipline earned them elite positions within the structure of the
slave system. The presence of Muslim families in Georgia,
Maryland and Mississippi who are descendants of African Muslim
slaves underscores the remarkable determination of the African
mu `minun (Muslim believers) slaves to preserve a distinctive
lifestyle built on Islamic faith and culture.

Many slaves saw the institution of slaveiy as against God’s
laws and humanity (to serve humanity is the best way to please
Allah) and galvanized slave support against the indignities of
slavery under the guise of Baptist preachers. They evidently were
the marabouts schooled in Islamic theology and studies and knew
the Qur’anic prescription against oppression: “Permission to fight
is given to those on whom war is made, because they are
oppressed. And surely Allah is able to assist them”(Holy Qur’an
22:3 9). Such prescriptions against injustices, inequities and
oppression inspired the Muslim slaves to organize rebellions
throughout the Americas.

Scholars in Islam in the Americas seem to suggest that
repeated slave revolts in Brazil, beginning in 1807, were led and
organized by Muslim slaves belonging to the Hausa, Fulani, Nago
and Yoruba nations of West Africa. The series of rebellions
culminated with the Bahia rebellion in 1835, which is regarded to
be “by far the most widespread, best organized, and most
devastating urban insurrection they had staged.” Although Diouf
refutes the rebellion as ajihad, the nature of the rebellion suggests
that the mujahids followed the Qur’anic commands and selected
their targets of destruction in their struggle to attain freedom,
which in Islam is a spiritual privilege, a moral prerogative, and
above all, a religious duty. According to Diouf “the supposed
white killing spree was not a reality, because the insurgents did not
kill indiscriminately.. .there is no evidence that they robbed a
single house or that they killed their masters on the siy.” Islam
does not permit Muslims to take up arms against the unarmed. It
permits one to fight only against aggressors as the Holy Qur’an
prescribes: “Fight in the way of Allah those who fight you, but be
not aggressive. Surely Allah loves not aggressors”(2:190). Diouf
rightly points out that “what the insurgent Muslims did was attack
the strategic buildings the police, the National Guard, and army
barracks where they could destroy the defenders of the
slaveholders and get much-needed arms and ammunition at the
same time.”. What is most perplexing is Dioufs characterization
of Islam as a “cult”!

Perhaps the most important Muslim slave rebellion was the
Jihad of 1831-32 in Jamaica, commonly called the Baptist
Rebellion. The rebellion was a response to the call for jihad made
through a wathiqah, a “pastoral letter” which “exhorted all of the
followers of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) to be true and faithful if
they wished to enter Paradise”. The nature and extent of the
rebellion, which lacked a central organization, speak of the role of
the so-called “baptized slaves” as marabouts, imam and ulema in
organizing an island rebellion to establish human dignity and
freedom. The mujahids held on to the Truth and persevered and
strove with constancy as they organized the rebellion while
working in bondage. Although ruthlessly crushed, the jihad
crippled the very foundation of the slave system and hastened the
Emancipation Act of 1833, leading to final emancipation of the
slaves in the entire British West Indies in 1838.

CONCLUSION

Although slavery was allowed by the Holy Qur `an in view of
social constraints, the principles of equality, brotherhood and the
freedom of the soul created grounds for its natural elimination. The
precedent set by Prophet Muhammad to emancipate slaves
(as a mandatory obligation or as a recommended action) banned most of
the causes leading to slavery with the exception of aggression
against Islam. The high ranks and positions enjoyed by the former
slaves of the Prophet (SAW) is unparalleled in world history. The
Mainluke dynasty in Egypt and the Dethi Sultanate in India
exemplify the enlightened nature of slavery in Islam. However, the
story of the Muslims who became victims of the Atlantic slave
trade in the New World, speaks of a tradition of jiliad and a
distinctive Islamic lifestyle. The mujahids believed that Allah’s
Plan is righteous, and for the good of His creatures and that none
shall live in bondage.

USpace said...

Amazing post! The more people that discuss the truths of Islam and Islamic Jihad, the more the Jihadis
will be put in their place. The rule of law must apply, the US isn't letting Muslim gangs run around raping schoolgirls.

If they ever try that stuff over here, I'm sure the cops will crack down hard.
This is what is happening less and less in Europe. And that is just like spoiling little kids rotten.
If the law continues not to clamp down and enforce law regarding violence it will just get worse and worse.

Wafa Sultan and Robert Spencer are heroes! Islam as practiced by the Islamofascists will never be peace because if
Earth ever became ruled by Sharia Law all the multitudes of Islamic factions that hate each other would keep fighting each other forever.

Educate ourselves and others!

The Religion of Peace

Prophet of Doom

The Brussels Journal

Jihad Watch

Gates of Vienna

Hard To Swallow

absurd thought -
God of the Universe thinks
ALL religions are GREAT

none are better than others
don't believe terrorists' threats


absurd thought -
God of the Universe says
threaten writers of books

telling the painful truths
hateful ideologies


absurd thought -
God of the Universe says
you may not defend yourself

never defend your culture
if it is Western and white


Robert Spencer Gets Peaceful Death Threats

Do American Liberals Want a Taliban Europe?
.

Anonymous said...

Am I able to get ring tones from the myxer website onto my iphone 3g s? How do I go about doing this? And is it really 100% free and safe to download stuff? I obviously have unlimited internet and text, but I wanted to make sure it wouldn't cost anything and wouldn't have a virus or something. Thanks!



________________
[url=http://unlockiphone22.com]unlock iphone[/url]